18.06.2024: Iñaki Aldasoro – The impact of artificial intelligence on output and inflation

Presenter: Iñaki Aldasoro.
Affiliation: Bank for International Settlements, Monetary and Economic Department.

Paper: The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Output and Inflation.

Date: June 18, 2024.
Time: 12:00 GMT (15:00 Israel Time)

Abstract: This paper studies the effects of artificial intelligence (AI) on sectoral and aggregate employment, output and inflation in both the short and long run. We construct an index of industry exposure to AI to calibrate a macroeconomic multi-sector model. Building on studies that find significant increases in workers’ output from AI, we model AI as a permanent increase in productivity that differs by sector. We find that AI significantly raises output, consumption and investment in the short and long run. The inflation response depends crucially on households’ and firms’ anticipation of the impact of AI. If they do not anticipate higher future productivity, AI adoption is initially disinflationary. Over time, general equilibrium forces lead to moderate inflation through demand effects. In contrast, when households and firms anticipate higher future productivity, inflation rises immediately. Inspecting individual sectors and performing counterfactual exercises we find that a sector’s initial exposure to AI has little correlation with its long-term increase in output. However, output grows by twice as much for the same increase in aggregate productivity when AI affects sectors producing consumption rather than investment goods, thanks to second round effects through sectoral linkages. We discuss how public policy should foster AI adoption and implications for central banks.

Coauthors: Sebastian Doerr (BIS), Leonardo Gambacorta (BIS), and Daniel Rees (BIS).

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